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Monument to Svyatoslav Vladimirovich, Skole, Ukraine
Monument to Svyatoslav Vladimirovich, Skole, Ukraine
Svyatoslav Vladimirovich –one of the sons of Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich from the Bohemian princess Malfrida or an unknown “Chechin”. Around 990, he was appointed by his father to the Drevlyansk principality. At the beginning of the civil strife of 1015-1019, Svyatoslav received news in time about the deaths of his brothers, who were killed on the orders of Svyatopolk the Accursed. He tried to escape to Hungary, but was overtaken on the road to the Carpathians and also killed.[1]wikipedia

Most researchers in the list of children of Vladimir Svyatoslavich place Svyatoslav next to Yaroslav. The order of seniority of the sons of Vladimir Svyatoslavich remains conditional. But, if Svyatoslav was the son of Malfrida, then he could most reliably be born in 982. Based on this, N. Baumgarten and some other researchers considered Svyatoslav older than Yaroslav.

Location of the lands of the Drevlyans on the territory of Kievan Rus
Location of the lands of the Drevlyans on the territory of Kievan Rus

The beginning of the civil strife

After the death of Prince Vladimir the Baptist, Svyatopolk imprisoned by him was released by his supporters and seized power in Kyiv. According to the established historical tradition, it was Svyatopolk who sent the killers to his brothers, princes Boris and Gleb. This is explained by his desire to protect himself from claims to the throne of Kyiv by other heirs of Vladimir.

Having received news of the murders of Boris and Gleb, Svyatoslav Drevlyansky left his capital and tried to flee to the Carpathian Mountains.

Scheme - the second strife in Old Rus
Scheme – the second strife in Old Rus

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Boris Vladimirovich - a fragment of the icon
Boris Vladimirovich – a fragment of the icon

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Gleb Vladimirovich - a fragment of the icon
Gleb Vladimirovich – a fragment of the icon

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Svyatopolk Vladimirovich "Cursed" (Art. V. Sheremetiev. 1867)
Svyatopolk Vladimirovich “Cursed”
(Art. V. Sheremetiev. 1867)

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The death of Svyatoslav Vladimirovich

The chase caught up with the prince on the banks of the Opir near the present city of Skole. On the banks of the Stryi River, seven sons of Svyatoslav died in battle, and the village at that place is still called Semiginov (in memory of the seven dead). The legend tells of a fierce battle between the Skole River and the village of Grebenovo. The whole valley was covered with the bodies of the dead. The forces of the squad of Svyatopolk the Accursed surpassed the enemy, when the Kyiv prince saw that victory was close, he decided not to leave anyone from the family of the persecuted brother alive and gave the order:

“Chop(in rus spelled like “Skolot”) them all!”

With this episode, the legend connects the name of the city of Skole. Prince Svyatoslav died in this battle, and a few of his surviving warriors refused to go to the service of Svyatopolk and settled in the Beskydy mountains, laying the foundation for the village of Slavsky.

In the area where these events took place, a legend has been preserved about how one of the women of the family of Prince Svyatoslav Drevlyansky (daughter or wife), named Paraskovia (Parashka), before the battle near the Opir River, was sent by the prince with a small number of guards to hide on top the mountains.

View of Mount Parashka
View of Mount Parashka


After the death of Svyatoslav and his troops, Svyatopolk’s warriors climbed the mountain and killed his relative (according to another version, she threw herself off the top so as not to get to the opponents for desecration). Since then, according to legend, the mountain is named after her Parashka.

In honor of Paraska, on the eastern slope of Parashka, there is a memorial stone with a sign:

“In 1015, the daughter of the Derevlyansky Prince Svyatoslav, Paraskovia, died and was buried, and this mountain was named Paraska.”

The death of Svyatoslav and the struggle for power between the sons of Vladimir Svyatoslavich deprived the Carpathian Croats of their last ally, and the valleys of Borzhava and Latoritsa were annexed by the Hungarians.

Family of Svyatoslav Vladimirovich

Chronicle data can be interpreted in such a way that Svyatoslav’s mother was a “Czech woman”. This can explain the only reliably known fact of his biography: in 1015, after the death of his father and the reign of Svyatopolk the Accursed, Svyatoslav fled from him “to the Ugorsky mountains” (Carpathians), that is, in the direction of the Czech Republic, but Svyatopolk’s servants overtook and killed him. Tatishchev calls his mother Malfrida.

The Nikon Chronicle reports that in 1002 Svyatoslav’s son Jan (that is, John) was born. There is no more information about him, just as there is no confidence in the authenticity of these tidings.

The flight of Svyatoslav through the Carpathians, as well as the name of his son Jan, suggest that his wife could be the daughter of the last Borzhava prince. Perhaps this prince tried with the help of such an alliance, hoping to defend the independence of his principality.

There is a version that Svyatoslav’s wife was a Hungarian princess. V. Shusharin and I. Shekera believe that Svyatoslav Vladimirovich was married to the daughter of the Hungarian King Stephen I, to whom he fled in 1015. There is no confirmation of this version in Hungarian sources.

Memory

Numerous toponyms (Skole, Slavsk, Svyatoslav (the outskirts of Skole), Slavki (a tributary of the Opir), Semiginov, the Opir (Opor) river, the Svyatoslavl tract, the Svyatoslavchik river, Svyatoslav’s grave) testify in favor of the legend of the death of Svyatoslav.

The excavations of the mound, called Svyatoslav’s grave, even with a critical approach to their results, confirmed that this was the burial of a noble combatant of the 11th century. It is possible that it was Prince Svyatoslav. Now on his grave there is a monument by the famous Lviv sculptor T. Brizh.

Monument to Svyatoslav Vladimirovich, Skole, Ukraine
Monument to Svyatoslav Vladimirovich, Skole, Ukraine

Section “Yaroslav the Wise”

Список литературы

  1. wikipedia
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Опубликовано: 10.08.2022
Изменено: 16.08.2022