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Monument to King Andras and his wife Anastasia of Kyiv
Monument to King Andras and his wife Anastasia of Kyiv

(1023—1074/1094)

Presumably the eldest daughter of Yaroslav the Wise and Ingigerda of Sweden, sister of Anna Yaroslavna (Queen of France) and Elizabeth Yaroslavna (Queen of Norway). Wife of the king of Hungary András And queen of Hungary in 1046-1060.

The name Anastasia does not appear either in the Russian chronicles or in the Hungarian chronicles, where she is referred to as “the daughter of the prince of Russia.” It is mentioned only in such a late source as the “History of Poland” by Jan Dlugosz (XV century), so this name can be considered conditional.[1]wikipedia

Anastasia Yaroslavna cycle "Kyiv princesses on the thrones of Europe, Main Post Office of Kyiv, 2016
Anastasia Yaroslavna
cycle “Kyiv princesses on the thrones of Europe, Main Post Office of Kyiv, 2016

Anastasia and Andras I

Around 1038, Anastasia was married to the Hungarian duke Andras (Andrew). Earlier, András fled to Kyiv to escape persecution by King Stephen I. By this time, Peter Orseolo, who succeeded the deceased Stephen I on the throne in 1038, alienated many representatives of the nobility and clergy, especially when in 1045 he solemnly recognized suzerainty Holy Roman Emperor Henry III over Hungary. As the Hungarian Chronicle writes, dissatisfied nobles, “seeing the suffering of their people”, gathered in Chanada and decided to send messengers to András and Leventa in Kyiv to convince them to return to Hungary. At the same time, a pagan uprising of the Magyar peasants unfolded in the country.

In 1046, András returned to Hungary with Anastasia and became king after seizing the throne. The Queen founded several Orthodox monasteries in Hungary.

Andrew I - King of Hungary Bust in the National Memorial Park in Opustaser.
Andrew I – King of Hungary
Bust in the National Memorial Park in Opustaser.

In 1053, Anastasia gave birth to a son named Sholomon (Solomon). The birth of Sholomon, and later his coronation, led to a conflict between the royal couple and the king’s brother Bela. Andrash forced Bela to publicly recognize Sholomon’s right to the throne (bypassing the “horizontal” tradition of succession to the Magyar throne – not from father to son, but from older brother to younger brother, as in Old Rus).

In recent years, Andrash was paralyzed, and Anastasia was increasingly involved in governing the country. In 1060, Bela raised an uprising against Andrásh and in the same year defeated brother. Shortly after which Andrash died, and on December 6, 1060, Bela became the Hungarian king.

The sons of Andras I from Queen Anastasia Yaroslavna - Sholomon and David. Miniature of the 14th century.
The sons of Andras I from Queen Anastasia Yaroslavna – Sholomon and David.
Miniature of the 14th century.

Life in exile and the return of the throne

Anastasia with her children was forced to flee to the German king Henry IV, whose sister Judith-Maria was engaged to Solomon. Henry ordered that they live in Bavaria and paid their expenses from the royal treasury. Anastasia intrigued for the German troops to help her overthrow Bela and return the throne to her son. The gathering of the army had already begun, and the frightened Bela was ready to return the throne to his nephew if he left him his former possessions. The case was decided by an accident: under Bela, the throne literally collapsed, Bela was seriously injured and soon died. After Bela’s death in 1063, German troops invaded Hungary, forcing his sons to flee to Poland.
Béla I King of Hungary illustration from Chronica Hungarorum
Béla I King of Hungary
illustration from Chronica Hungarorum

Solomon was declared the new king. In gratitude for the help rendered to her, Anastasia presented the Bavarian Duke Otto of Northeim with the “sword of Attila” – a Hungarian royal relic – which, according to legend, belonged to the leader of the Huns.

With a young son, Anastasia ruled the kingdom, and their position remained precarious, there was an actual dual power in the country. The support of her and King Solomon was Henry IV. The sons of Bela I, Geza and Laszlo, were supported by Poland, as well as the brother of Anastasia, Prince of Kyiv Izyaslav Yaroslavich, who was married to the Polish princess Gertrude.

Anastasia Yaroslavna curses the son of Sholomon (Art. Orlai Petrich Soma, 1857)
Anastasia Yaroslavna curses the son of Sholomon
(Art. Orlai Petrich Soma, 1857)

Anastasia at this time remarried the German Count Poto. It is known about her disagreements with her son. There is a legend that Anastasia cursed him because he put his interests above the state and violated the peace treaty with his cousins. In 1074, it came to the point that Solomon raised his hand against his mother. In the same year, the sons of Bela I Geza and Laszlo overthrew Solomon, who fled to Germany. Anastasia also went there.

Death

Anastasia died no later than 1094, since in this year she is already mentioned as dead. According to legend, she died in the monastery of Admont or Agmund, in Styria. In a number of obsolete studies, the name of this monastery was taken for her name, so that the queen is erroneously called “Agmund” in these works.

On the top of the mountain next to Lake Balaton, near the Tihany Abbey Church, a monument to King András and his wife was erected in modern times. There is an inscription on it: “King Andras I and Queen Anastasia – Ukrainian princess.”

The fate of Anastasia’s children

Sholomon (Solomon)

Having fled to Germany, Sholomon, with the help of the military support of the German emperor, managed to retain the northwestern part of the country. He kept these lands constantly fighting with his brothers, until 1081 – then Henry IV had no problems with the Pope and he refused to give military assistance to Solomon. Because of this, the son of Anastasia was forced to capitulate, receiving in return the forgiveness of his cousin Laszlo I, who became king of Hungary after Geza I.

Returning to court, Solomon tried to plot against his cousin, but was discovered and imprisoned in 1083. In the same year, King Laszlo forgave Sholomon for the second time on the occasion of the canonization (August 19) of Istvan Arpad, the first king and baptist of Hungary. Once free, Sholomon again tried to call for help from his brother-in-law emperor, but was refused.

Then the grandson of Yaroslav the Wise joined the horde of the Pecheneg Khan Ketteshka, who roamed the territory of present-day Moldova. Although his wife Judit was alive and the couple were not divorced, Sholomon married Köteshk’s daughter, thus becoming a bigamist. Promising to give the khan Transylvania, Solomon invaded Hungary from the east in 1085, leading the Pecheneg horde. King Laszlo I met and completely defeated the troops of Köteshk near Kisvarda (North-East of modern Hungary). Solomon again had to flee. He died two years later, in 1087, at about 35 years old, in one of the battles between the Pechenegs and the Greeks.

David

In addition to the elder Sholomon, Yaroslavna had another son, David (1053/1055-1094). However, historians do not know anything about his participation in the turbulent political life of Hungary and the equally turbulent life of his brother Sholomon. According to indirect signs, David became a member of a spiritual order from an early age. There are references to his large donations to various religious organizations, in particular, to the abbey of Tihany, which was founded by his father and mother. Like his brother, David did not leave behind any children, and thus, with his death in 1094, this branch of the common descendants of the Arpads and Ruriks ended.

Section “Yaroslav the Wise”

Список литературы

  1. wikipedia
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Опубликовано: 12.08.2022
Изменено: 12.08.2022